BOSTON — The U.S. Justice Department has indicted 11 people for their alleged roles in some of the card data breaches that have cost credit unions the most.

If the allegations are found to be true, the Hacking 11 were responsible for the data theft and associated fraud at a minimum of eight major retailers, including the TJX companies, BJ’s Wholesale Club, DSW, OfficeMax, Boston Market, Barnes & Noble, Sports Authority and Forever 21. Thefts of card data from these retailers, among others, cost credit unions and other card issuers at least tens of millions of dollars and forced a sweeping overhaul of how the entire card industry protects cardholder data.

The indictments, which led to case filings in several jurisdictions, said that the 11, including three U.S. citizens, three Ukrainian citizens, two citizens of the People’s Republic of China, one citizen of Belarus and one citizen of Estonia, hacked into the retailers’ computer networks; one conspirator is only known by an alias.

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